The molecular story of COVID-19; NAD+ depletion addresses all questions in this infection

Shirin Kouhpayeh, Laleh Shariati, Maryam Boshtam, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mina Mirian, Mehrdad Zeinalian, Azhar Salari-jazi, Negar Khanahmad, Mohammad Sadegh Damavandi, Parisa Sadeghi, Hossein Khanahmad

Published: March 23, 2020 (07:40:50 CET) - Preprints 2020, 2020030346. This version is not peer-reviewed.
This article describes the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of CoVID19: the renin–angiotensin (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokines storm, endothelial dysfunction, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ultimately leading to apoptosis and necrosis due to NAD and ATP depletion.


  • “…NAD+ and niacin - In the depicted molecular pathology pathway of COVID-19, almost all procedures lead to or originate from NAD+ depletion.” (emphasis added)
  • “…NAD and ATP are prerequisite for each other and consumption of NAD in large amounts decreases ATP levels leading to impairment of all activities and integrity of the cell …”
  • “Fatigue and various degrees of mood disorders are the consequences of NAD, ATP and serotonin reduction, which could be addressed by concomitant prescription of NAD, Niacin (Vitamin B3) and/or its precursor L tryptophan with a PARP or PARG inhibitor..." (emphasis added).

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